The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that "peace" seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict.
Shilluk anger at the proposed division of the state has already led to increased support for Johnson Olonyi and the unseating of Kwongo Dak Padiet, the Shilluk reth kingwho was perceived as being aligned with the Government of the Republic of South Sudan GRSS.
An increasingly ethnicized conflict between the Shilluk and the Padang Dinka is now unfolding in Upper Nile. The fighting claimed the lives of at least 40 Shilluk and Nuer internally displaced persons IDPs and injured at least The largely Nuer south is still under rebel control, aside from government forces in Nasir town, Longochuk county, and in northern Ulang, close to the border with Nasir.
Further information was not available at the time of writing. The government forces stationed on the east bank of the White Nile are heterogeneous. The status of his troops in a planned Padang Dinka-dominated Eastern Nile state is uncertain. This mixed force included Equatorian troops and, in the beginning, even some Shilluk soldiers.
In Malakal, after the deployment of the 2nd Division, Padang Dinka militias moved south from Paloich; they now constitute part of the defensive forces protecting the city, with deleterious results for the Shilluk and Nuer IDPs, who are harassed when they try to leave the PoC site.
These militias were created inand although many of their names were those of SPLA battalions from the second civil war, there is no link between the old battalions and the new militias. Initially formed to protect the oil fields at Paloich, and relied upon by the Padang Dinka for community defence during the current civil war, these militia forces rapidly became the central actors in an offensive struggle waged against the Shilluk for control of the east bank of the White Nile.
Since Marchthese militias have burnt Shilluk settlements, killed Shilluk civilians, and attacked the Agwelek forces of Johnson Olonyi. Over the course ofthe ethnic conflict shifted from the east to the west bank of the White Nile.
Dinka militias initially focused their attacks on Shilluk forces in Akoka county, notably at Lelo. Since mid, however, these forces have intermittently moved onto the west bank, attacking civilians and fighters in the heartland of Shilluk territory.
Purchased instationed at Paloich, and flown by Eastern European crew members, the helicopter has repeatedly been used to attack Shilluk villages; on 6 Julyit strafed the area around a hospital of the International Committee for the Red Cross in Kodok, killing at least 13 patients.
The SPLA has a presence along the banks of the river, which deprives Shilluk civilians of sorely needed access to a river from which they could otherwise gain valuable food resources.
In response, the government announced that it would suspend the plan.
On 27 FebruaryLam announced his new cabinet, drawing many appointees from the cabinet of Simon Kun Puoch, who was dismissed as the governor of Upper Nile in August Thus, for instance, Peter Hoth Tuach continues as minister of information.
These allegations, which Chol Thon angrily rejected on 4 March, are indicative of a changing power dynamic in Upper Nile state, and of the increasing dominance of the Padang Dinka. The new map of South Sudan also tends to place smaller ethnic groups within Dinka-majority states. The tripartite division of Upper Nile thus largely follows ethnic lines; however, it does not follow them perfectly.
This correlation between new state boundaries and current military positions indicates the degree to which the new Upper Nile map is an attempt to render de facto occupations as de jure administrative borders.
Since his brief period as governor, he has lived in Juba, worked as a lawyer, and served on various GRSS legal committees. The Shilluk claim several areas in Akoka and Baliet counties as their own, as well as Malakal and Pigi county, in Jonglei state, which is also to be included inside Eastern Nile.
Both Akoka and Pigi counties are relatively recent creations and have been bitterly contested between the Padang Dinka and the Shilluk. He did not enjoy the full trust of the SPLA, however.
While his men remained in the area around Wadakona, Okiech was effectively kept under house arrest in Juba. Rather, the stage is now set for a war of intermittent clashes, as both sides move out from secure positions on either side of the White Nile to contest the banks of the river.
Sincethe Dinka and the Shilluk have contested three principal areas: Despite the length of the histories invoked by both sides, however, the land dispute between them really only became divisive inafter the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement CPAwhich brought an end to the long second civil war in Sudan.
With South Sudanese self-governance came questions of development priorities and the establishment of local and state-level political institutions, which in turn would allocate resources from the central government in Juba.
The struggle for control of these institutions became part of the political battle between the Dinka and the Shilluk. The delimitation of county borders also intensified land disputes between the two groups, as areas of shared land usage became the object of exclusionary claims by both sides.
This process led to clashes between the Padang Dinka and the Shilluk in andbefore tensions erupted once again inat a celebration in Malakal.
The dispute arose over which group was to lead a parade before visiting dignitaries. The real question, however, was the ownership of Malakal; for both sides, leading the parade would indicate that Malakal belonged to their respective ethnic group.
Following clashes at the stadium, Padang Dinka fighters attacked Shilluk positions at Lelo, in what is now Akoka county, and in Nagdiar, in Baliet county. The creation of formal administrative counties in Upper Nile led to political disagreements with an increasingly absolutist character; areas were either Shilluk or Padang Dinka, as competition for land and political power intensified followingand the Padang Dinka attacked the Shilluk both militarily and administratively.
Although the SPLA operation on the west bank was officially a disarmament campaign, the SPLA razed villages, killed and raped civilians, and fuelled Shilluk hostility towards the Upper Nile administration.
The attacks on the west bank of the Nile fed directly into the emergence of the Shilluk rebellions of Johnson Olonyi, Ayok Ogat, and Johannes Okiech in —Aristotle: Poetics.
Conflict of interest (COI) editing involves contributing to Wikipedia about yourself, family, friends, clients, employers, or your financial and other relationships. Any external relationship can trigger a conflict of barnweddingvt.com someone has a conflict of interest is a description of a situation, not a judgement about that person's opinions, integrity, or good faith. Definition, Usage and a list of Conflict Examples in common speech and literature. In literature, a conflict is a literary element that involves a struggle between two opposing forces usually a protagonist and an antagonist. A series of closely interrelated essays on game theory, this book deals with an area in which progress has been least satisfactory―the situations where there is a common interest as well as conflict between adversaries: negotiations, war and threats of war, criminal deterrence, extortion, tacit bargaining.
The Poetics of Aristotle ( B.C.E.) is a much-disdained book. So unpoetic a soul as Aristotle's has no business speaking about such a topic, much less telling poets how to . Latest Magazine Issue The Return of Global Conflict.
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Conflict of interest (COI) editing involves contributing to Wikipedia about yourself, family, friends, clients, employers, or your financial and other relationships. Any external relationship can trigger a conflict of barnweddingvt.com someone has a conflict of interest is a description of a situation, not a judgement about that person's opinions, integrity, or good faith.