Fraud case studies in malaysia

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Fraud case studies in malaysia

Electorate manipulation[ edit ] Electoral fraud can occur in advance of voting if the composition of the electorate Fraud case studies in malaysia altered. The legality of this type of manipulation varies across jurisdictions.

Deliberate manipulation of election outcomes is widely considered a violation of the principles of democracy. One way of doing this is to move a large number of voters into the electorate prior to an election, for example by temporarily assigning them land or lodging them in flophouses.

However, such laws can also be used for demographic manipulation as they tend to disenfranchise those with no fixed address, such as the homeless, travelers, Romastudents studying full-time away from homeand some casual workers. Another strategy is to permanently move people into an electoral district, usually through public housing.

If people eligible for public housing are likely to vote for a particular party, then they can either be concentrated into one area, thus making their votes count for less, or moved into marginal electorateswhere they may tip the balance towards their preferred party.

For instance, Malaysia gave citizenship to immigrants from the neighboring Philippines and Indonesiatogether with suffrage, in order for a political party to "dominate" the state of Sabah ; this controversial process was known as Project IC.

People who support one party may temporarily join another party or vote in a crossover way, when permitted in order to elect a weak candidate for that party's leadership. The goal ultimately is to defeat the weak candidate in the general election by the leader of the party that the voter truly supports.

There were claims that this method was being utilised in the UK Labour Party leadership election inwhere Conservative-leaning Toby Young encouraged Conservatives to join Labour and vote for Jeremy Corbyn in order to "consign Labour to electoral oblivion".

In some cases, states have passed provisions that raised general barriers to voter registration, such as poll taxes, literacy and comprehension tests, and record-keeping requirements, which in practice were applied against minority populations to discriminatory effect.

Fraud Prevention 101

From the turn of the century into the late s, most African Americans in the southern states of the former Confederacy were disenfranchised by such measures. Corrupt election officials may misuse voting regulations such as a literacy test or requirement for proof of identity or address in such a way as to make it difficult or impossible for their targets to cast a vote.

Fraud case studies in malaysia

If such practices discriminate against a religious or ethnic group, they may so distort the political process that the political order becomes grossly unrepresentative, as in the post- Reconstruction or Jim Crow era until the Voting Rights Act of Groups may also be disenfranchised by rules which make it impractical or impossible for them to cast a vote.

For example, requiring people to vote within their electorate may disenfranchise serving military personnel, prison inmates, students, hospital patients or anyone else who cannot return to their homes.

Communities may also be effectively disenfranchised if polling places are situated in areas perceived by voters as unsafe, or are not provided within reasonable proximity rural communities are especially vulnerable to this [ example needed ]. In some cases, voters may be invalidly disenfranchised, which is true electoral fraud.

The Military Voters Act permitted any active military personnel to vote by party only and allowed that party to decide in which electoral district to place that vote.

It also enfranchised those women who were directly related or married to an active soldier. These groups were believed to be disproportionately in favor of the Union government, as that party was campaigning in favor of conscription.

She proposed that ruling parties can maintain political control under a democratic system without actively manipulating votes or coercing the electorate. Under the right conditions, the democratic system is manouvered into an equilibrium in which divided opposition parties act as unwitting accomplices to single-party rule.Apr 13,  · In today’s world, every successful company is a tech company.

It’s become impossible to separate business strategy from technological innovation, so everyone from retailers to health care. Case 3: What happened? The stolen computers were simply a matter of poor checking procedures. Salespeople submitted purchase orders for customers’ equipment.

The technicians ordered and installed the equipment but it wasn’t checked against the customers’ purchase orders. This case had an added level of fraud.

With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries.

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A robust fraud management process can help you identify risks that can lead to opportunities, as well as those that can lead to potential pitfalls. Case Studies as Ethics Training ToolsMankind censure injustice fearing that they may be the victim of it, and not because they shrink from.

Employee fraud in Malaysia: A case study.