Solemnity of Pentecost Introduction 1. Human beings have always been in search of happiness and meaning. Augustine well expressed it: This statement already poses the problem of the tension between profound desire and moral choices, whether conscious or not.
Sumer, Babylon, and Hittites The twelfth to the ninth centuries BC in Mesopotamia are considered a dark age because very little is known about that time period. From the thirteenth century BC to the middle of the sixth century is called the iron age with increasing use of that new technology.
A powerful Elamite kingdom led by Shutruk-nahhunte and his son Kutir-nahhunte conquered several hundred settlements and captured Babylon, ending the Kassite dynasty and taking away the statue of Marduk in BC.
Kutir-nahhunte died about BC and was succeeded as king of Elam by his brother Shilkhak-Inshushinak, who used Babylonian tribute to build up their capital of Susa.
Shilkhak launched military campaigns against Aramaean settlements to the west and north along the Tigris River. The year reign of Ashur-dan was ending with a struggle for power Hammurabi the law giver Assyria.
A new Babylonian dynasty emerged in Isin; Nebuchadrezzar I r. However, his attacks against Assyria were successfully resisted. Both the Babylonians and the Assyrians fought against the Lullubi tribes in the eastern hills and the nomadic tribes in the western deserts.
Assyrian King Tiglath-pileser I r. Tiglath-pileser also led his troops to the west as far as Lebanon. However, these victories were not followed up with effective imperialistic administration as the Aramaeans were able to fight back later. Tiglath-pileser entertained himself hunting big game and claimed he killed lions.
He organized water projects and collected literature in the world's oldest extant library. Tiglath-pileser did attack Babylon and plunder it, but he withdrew. For the next two centuries Assyria and Babylon co-existed.
In the eleventh century BC Nebuchadrezzar I was celebrated in an epic poem; Sinleqeunnimi of Uruk produced a humanized version of the Epic of Gilgamesh ; and another poet expressed the workings of divine justice, an important concept in Babylonian religion.
Tiglath-pileser's son Ashur-bel-kala r. Assyrian laws were stricter and their treatment of women worse than among the Babylonians, Hittitesand Israelites. In Assyria women could be divorced for no reason without being given any money, could be killed or maimed for adultery, and had to wear a veil outside the house, except for prostitutes who were forbidden to wear a veil.
In his reign BC Adad-nirari II fought numerous military campaigns of expansion and made a treaty with Babylon that lasted eighty years.
His son Tukulti-Ninurta II began reporting hostile attacks as justification for his campaigns and rebuilt the walls of Ashur. Continued expansion by his son Ashurnasirpal II r. Ashurnasirpal rebuilt Kalakh and made it his capital; 69, guests attended the opening ceremonies at his new palace.
Ashurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser III r. In Babylon Marduk-zakir-shumi called upon Shalmaneser and the Assyrians to help him establish his kingship against a challenge by his younger brother, who was defeated by Shalmaneser's army in BC.
Shalmaneser went on to defeat and take tribute from the Chaldeans and plunder the land of Namri. The next year Shalmaneser led an army ofagainst Arzashkun, the capital city of Urartu's King Aram r.
Aram was overthrown by Sarduri I, whose dynasty in Urartu lasted a quarter of a millennium. Urartu kings Menua r. At the end of his reign the crown prince rebelled against Shalmaneser; the dying King turned to his younger son who became Shamsi-Adad V, won the civil war with Babylon's help, and reigned for a dozen years, ungratefully attacking Babylon and the Chaldeans.
After Adad-nirari III died in BC, his four sons ruled in succession; but none of them were noteworthy until the fourth, Tiglath-pileser III, became king of Assyria in BC, though some believe that he was not a royal son but a general who took power by force. Massive deportations were used to break up regional loyalties.
In BC 65, Iranians were displaced, and laterwere moved; 30, Syrians were sent to the Zagros mountains while 18, Aramaeans from the Tigris area went to northern Syria.
Such policies increased the hatred of Assyria, and thus rebellions would continue in the years ahead anyway. When a Chaldean gained the throne of Babylon, Tiglath-pileser removed him and in BC made himself king of Babylon; but he died the next year. Tiglath-pileser's son Shalmaneser V was king of Assyria barely long enough to besiege Samaria for three years.
The deportation of 27, Israelites was supervised by his successor Sargon II r. Sargon may have had to struggle to get the throne because he thanked the citizens of Ashur for helping him by exempting Ashur and Harran from the taxes imposed by Tiglath-pileser, and he punished "6, criminals" of Ashur by sending them to Harran.
Assyria's growing empire had interfered with the trade routes and made enemies of Urartu in the north and Egypt, which supported numerous rebellions in the years ahead. Assyria's first attack on Babylon was defeated by Elam.
A decade later Sargon attacked the cities of Kish, Nippur, and Dur-Atkhara while the Babylonian-Elamite coalition fought a guerrilla defense from swamps, flooded areas, the hills, and the tribal peripheries.James Smith -. A SOLEMN CHARGE. Deuteronomy "O Israel, thou shalt keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you" (vv.
1, . Start studying Hammurabi The Law Giver/Assyria. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This study is to reveal the origins of numerous aspects in the Tanak, Hebrew Bible, of the patriarchal Indo-European elements incorporated into the text from the perspective of the deities, gods and goddesses, which many translators mask in their English translations.
Hammurabi became the king of Babylon in bc - Hammurabi, the Law Giver introduction. He was one of the most unforgettable person of earl civilized history. Clearly he was not only a king but also with his conquest he was a warrior.
We present an insightful article by eminent scholar of Vedas and History – Sri Rajveer Arya (aryarajveer @ barnweddingvt.com) written three years ago on the issue of Sri Rama being a myth or a historical legend. Hammurabi, the Law Giver Essay. Hammurabi became the king of Babylon in bc - Hammurabi, the Law Giver Essay introduction.
He was one of the most unforgettable person of earl civilized history.
Clearly he was not only a king but also with his conquest he was a warrior.