Course Listing For Courses AC Financial Accounting 3 Credits This course is an introduction to accounting concepts and the elements of financial statements including basic accounting vocabulary and analysis of business transactions from an accounting viewpoint.
What is an autoclave? Pressure steam sterilisers autoclaves are used in laboratories both for sterilisation of media and equipment required for the culture of microorganisms, and for sterilisation of discarded cultures and waste materials.
Pressure steam sterilisers operate at high pressures and temperatures, and appropriate measures must be taken for to ensure the safety of workers. Autoclaves utilise moist heat, in the form of saturated steam under pressure, to destroy microbial life.
Steam sterilisation is the most reliable sterilisation method for the majority of situations. The autoclave is used to sterilise: The following elements all contribute to autoclave effectiveness. The time required for sterilisation varies, but it will never be less than 30 minutes.
The time is measured from the point at which the temperature of the material to be sterilised reaches the required autoclaving temperature - the tighter the autoclave is packed, the longer it will take for the material in the centre of the load to reach the temperature required.
Saturated steam must contact all areas of the load. Sterilisation will fail if: Autoclaves must be used properly to effect successful steam sterilisation.
What are the general guidelines for ensuring autoclave effectiveness? There are a number of general guidelines that should be followed when using autoclaves to ensure effective sterilisation.
Indicators, such as autoclave tape, indicate with a visible colour change that they have been through the autoclave process. At the end of the autoclave cycle, indicators should be checked to ensure they have changed colour.
There are commercially available test kits that use bacterial spores to test the autoclave efficiency. Steam and heat cannot easily penetrate a densely packed autoclave bag.
If an autoclave is overfilled the outer contents of the bag will be sterilised, but the innermost part will be unaffected. An over packed autoclave chamber does not allow efficient steam distribution, and so sterilisation efficiencies will be reduced.
Autoclave temperature, pressure and cycle duration time should be monitored during each cycle. Some autoclaves have charts that trend the temperatures and pressures inside the autoclave chamber throughout each cycle.
Autoclaves must be covered by a regular preventative maintenance program that is performed by a technician certified by the manufacturer.
Most items to be autoclaved are packed into autoclave bags, which come in a variety of types and sizes. Paper autoclave bags Paper autoclave bags are commonly used when autoclaving reusable equipment after it has been disinfected and washed.
Paper autoclave bags should be closed by folding down and taping the open end as they are permeable to steam. Plastic autoclave bags Plastic biohazard bags are commonly used when autoclaving biological waste before disposal.
Autoclave bags should be left partially open, to allow steam to penetrate the bag. Where possible, water should be added to autoclave bags to facilitate saturated steam contact.
What do I need to know when autoclaving without an autoclave bag?
Some reusable equipment is autoclaved without autoclave bags, and in this instance the following guidelines should be followed. Tubular equipment such as pipettes and equipment such as conical flasks should be plugged with a wad of cotton wool, so that the interior of the equipment remains sterile after autoclaving.
Small bottles and tubes should be loaded in open mesh baskets. Lids or caps should be loosened.Mortgage/property type: Buy-to-let schemes (large-scale fraud can take the form of large-scale renovation projects, new-build apartment complexes, and on occasion commercial properties).
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