IT is remarkable that no place has been given in the schools and colleges of England and America to the writings of the early Christians. For many centuries, and down to what is called the Pagan renaissance, they were the common linguistic study of educated Christians.
Phil lip Sipiora, Ph. March 31, Keywords: The Symbolist Aesthetic 1 Chapter One: Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Crane Chapter Four: Almost equally importa nt, the early career of T.
Eliot exerted a profound impact on Cranes poetic development and indeed served as the primary introduction to many nineteenth-century French poets for Crane and many other American poets of his generation. This dissertation initially examines c ontemporary critical definitions of the symbolist method and explores the extent to which Hart Cranes familiarity with the French language helped shape his exposure to writers such as Baudelaire, Rimbaud, and Mallarm.
A reading of Cranes Black Ta mbourine, a self-pro fessed Baudelairesque thing, indicates the dissert ations general approach by showing how Cranes poems evolve as mingling incantationsas artistic blendings inte rfused by the aesthetics of the major French Symbolist poets.
After presenting a historical overview a nd critique of the critical reception given to Crane as a symbolist, the rest of the dissertation interrogates the relationship of Crane to Eliot and their views on lit erary influence; examines the connections between Crane, Baudelaire, and Rimbaud; a nd finally explores the theo retical affinities between Mallarm and Cranes formulati on of a neo-symbolist poetics.
PAGE 4 1 Introduction: The Symbolist Aesthetic The initial impetus for my dissertation derives from the first sentence of an essay by Allen Tate written shortly after Hart Cranes death: The career of Hart Crane will be written by future critics as a chapter in the neo-symbolis t movement Hart Crane Tates prophesied chapter ne ver materialized, though many subsequent critics have produced scattered and fragmentary accounts of Cranes indebtedness to the French Symbolist poets of the nineteenth century.
This dissertation, a pr olegomenon to Tates prophesied chapter, will demonstrate the central ity of French Symbolist poets Baudelaire, Rimbaud, and Mallarm to Cranes aesthetics and poetic technique, pl us examine shifting theories about literary influence between Crane and The existence of pathos in dantes chief model, T.
In the broadest sense, this dissertation will synthesize and extend the corpus of previous critical commentary devoted to examining Cranes stylistic and aesthetic affinities with the symbolists.
My primary purpose is to demonstrate how symbolist poetics function as not one of several but rather as the primary shaping force on Cranes development--most evident in his first volume, White Buildings published in In addition, unlike most previous critical analyses I hope to interrogate the extent to which Cranes adoption and modification of sym bolist practices affected his later poem The Bridge and the lyrics coll ected after his suicide for a projected volume called Key West: PAGE 5 2 An important obstacle to a ssessing Hart Cranes evolu tion as a poet lies in the diversity of critical treatm ent his work has received.
Almost since the inception of Cranes career, literary critics have diverged widely in their attempts to situate his poems and letters within the modernist American ca non. Most strikingly, critics have reached nearly no consensus on how to characterize Cranes achievement as an American poet.
Conclusions regarding how to categorize Cr ane range across a wide gamut from an unlettered Midwestern natural genius who never finished high school to a willfully obscure metaphysical lyricist torn between conflicting American poetic traditions-typically grouped around Poe and Whitman as major precursors.
Holding up Poe and Whitman as the major roles available to modern American poets remains a holdover from earlyand mid-century New Criticism and provides a glimpse of the critical milieu in which Cran e was appreciated initially.
Critical responses to The Bridge in particular have suffered from simplistic readings which overemphasize a supposedly naive Whitmanian affirmation of modern life. Eliots speech American Literature and Language traces m odern poetrys birth from the exhausted ash-heap of the tail-end of the Victorian era, and asserts, In the nineteenth century, Poe and Whitman stand out as solitary international figures To Criticize John Unterecker, Cranes most thorough biographer and one of the poets most perceptive critics, invokes the same two figures in a di scussion of the poetic precursors balanced and invoked in The Bridge: Architecture 95 Although many critics position Poe as godfather or role model of the French Symbolists and Whitman as Cranes primary artistic forefathers in The Bridge, the first to do so prominently was Yvor Winters in a review of The Bridge: After a review of relevant criticism in chapter one, a fuller discussion of the complex triangulation of Eliot, Crane, and the literary climate of the reception accorded them will occur in chapter two, but at this point one need simply note the absence of Dickinson and Melville from Eliots list of international nineteen th-century American poets despite the rediscovery in the late teen s and twenties of these neglected writers.
Marginalized today in the modernist canon like these nineteenth-century writers were in the earliest part of the twentieth century, Crane saw fit to write poems honoring Dickinson and Melville, a form of homage never paid by the other significant modern American poets Eliot mentions he lists Crane with Pound, Williams, Stevens, Moore, Cummings, Ransom, and Tate.
Eliot Tateor even as the Cleveland Rimbaud intent on the drglement de tous les sens through stimuli such as alcohol, tobacco, and loud music Cowley and Galpin. The sheer variety of these different approaches toward classifying the poet calls to mind Cranes own description of Nietzsche at the end of his first published pr ose review: With regard to verse te chnique, however, many cont emporary critics probably would concur with Warner Berthoff in dividi ng Cranes career into three major phases: Th e critical lin eage of this standard chronology of Cranes career stretche s over almost the whole of Cranes critical reception, commencing with the early analys es by Munson and Tate.
The tripartite scheme is implicit in Tates introduction to White Buildings wherein he confides that To the Imagists Crane doubtless went to school in poetry, and then anticipates The Bridge by claiming If the energy of Cranes vision never quite reaches a sustained PAGE 8 5 maximum, it is because he has not found a suitable theme Introduction Subsequent encodings of this imagist-symbolis t-epic bard scheme surface repeatedly in the biographies by Horton, Weber, and Unterecker; Untereckers Voyager in some ways represents a summary crystallization of this tripartite developmental classification reinscribed in the monographs of Lewis, Hazo, Vincent Quinn, and others in the sixties.
Apart from Berthoff, the only other publis hed recent treatments albeit oblique of Cranes developmental evolution are by Ba rbarese, Norton-Smith, and Ernest Smith.
The present study will reconf igure this conventional chronology by focusing more attention on Hart Cranes development as a symbolist poet.Jun 13, · matthew arnold When your Principal asked me to select a topic for a lecture, I replied, in a moment of weakness, that I would speak of Matthew Arnold.
The choice was partly suggested by an observation made on a recent visit to the United States. One prisoner of fifteen years had scratched verses upon his walls, and brief prose sentences — brief, but full of pathos. These spoke not of himself and his hard estate, but only of the shrine where his spirit fled the prison to worship — of home and the idols that were templed there.
Jun 13, · matthew arnold When your Principal asked me to select a topic for a lecture, I replied, in a moment of weakness, that I would speak of Matthew Arnold. The choice was partly suggested by an observation made on a recent visit to the United States. The Walt Whitman Archive. Published Works In Whitman's Hand Life & Letters Commentary Resources Pictures & Sound About the Archive. Commentary Disciples. About this Item. Title: With Walt Whitman in Camden vol. 5. Creator: Horace Traubel. Date: Whitman Archive ID: med What are the top classic novels worth reading? Update Cancel. ad by Grammarly. In this book, the death of a child whose father did Edmond Dantes a cruel wrong and deserved punishment; The novel also captures perfectly that delicate dynamic between pathos and humor. 4.
The Existence of Pathos in Dante’s Inferno The strength of emotions drives many unjustifiable actions of humanity. The human race is subjected to feelings of pity and compassion. Essay The Existence of Pathos in Dante's Inferno. Madeleine Calhoun First Year Seminar Professor Scheible 11/24/12 The Existence of Pathos in Dante’s Inferno The strength of emotions drives many unjustifiable actions of humanity.
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